If you’ve ever been stumped by the sheer number of stainless steel grades readily available today, then you’re not alone. With all the different grades and alloy combinations, tracking them all cannot be difficult. This blog post will help you better understand three common stainless steel materials – 316, 316l, and 316ti – often chosen for their superior physical properties and corrosion resistance capabilities. We’ll cover what makes these grades so special and discuss their unique characteristics, applications, and any essential considerations to consideryou’reu’re looking for new material for your next project.
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Stainless Steel 316
Molybdenum is added to Grade 316 stainless steel, a chromium-nickel alloy, to improve corrosion resistance in acidic situations. To be more precise, it offers protection against pitting and crevice corrosion in a chloride environment. It is more heat resistant and suitable for usage in hotter environments. Excellent forming ability can be shown in grade 316. It is easily formable into the parts needed in many different industries, like transportation and architecture. For grade 316, post-weld annealing is not necessary and weldability is good.
It is the most extensively used machinery for processing chemicals and food, nuts and bolts, etc.
Stainless Steel 316L
316L is a grade 316 modification with less carbon. The only difference between it and grade 316 is its low carbon content. In the temperature range of 800°F to 1500°F, low carbon content prevents carbon carbide precipitation. Heavy gauge welded portions frequently use it.
In the maritime environment, grade 316L is more oxidation-resistant than 316. It offers resilience to cryogenic temperatures and has superior overall strength.
Cold working is a method of hardening grade 316L. It exhibits strong weldability. There is no need for post-weld annealing.
Stainless Steel 316ti
For applications needing greater temperatures, grade 316Ti, a stabilized variant of grade 316 stainless steel, is advised. It is stainless steel made of austenitic chromium-nickel. When temperatures are high, grade 316 is susceptible to the development of carbides, which can lead to intragranular corrosion. Titanium is a minor amount present in grade 316Ti, which defines it. It makes up about 0.5% of the makeup. At high temperatures, titanium stabilizes the microstructure. At high temperatures, it eliminates carbide precipitation and stops rusting. Titanium binds with carbon during the heating process to create titanium carbide. Chromium carbides cannot develop because of it. 316Ti can therefore be used at greater temperatures for a longer period.
Additionally, molybdenum is present and offers protection against corrosion caused by chloride pitting. 316Ti and grade 316 share similar mechanical and physical characteristics. It has a high-stress rupture temperature and good tensile strength. It has resistance to sulfates, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acids.
In general, grade 316Ti should be utilized for applications requiring high temperatures. With no danger of precipitation, 316Ti can be subjected to greater temperatures for longer periods. Equipment for paper mills, chemical processes, heat exchangers, marine conditions, and the oil and gas industry all frequently use grade 316Ti.
- increased creep resistance
- very good formability.
- Temperature-dependent rupture and tensile strength
- Pitting and corrosion resistance
Grade 316 offers exceptional corrosion resistance in environments that are corrosive to chloride. It is commonly referred to as marine grade. When exposed to high levels of chlorine in freshwater, grade 316 stainless steel resists corrosion. For providing outstanding corrosion resistance in marine conditions, it is renowned. Corrosion resistance comparable to grade 316 stainless steel is demonstrated by grades 316L and 316Ti.
In intermittent use, grade 316 offers good oxidation resistance up to 870°C, and in continuous mode, up to 925°C. Since grade 316L prevents carbide precipitation at higher temperatures, it can withstand exposure to high temperatures.
The fusion method of welding can be used with or without fillers. Electrodes of grades 316 and 316L are advised for welding. Grade 316 in heavy segments can be welded using grade 316Ti. Heavy parts might need post-weld treatment.